Archive For The “Importance of Sleep in Our Life” Category

Why Do We Need To Sleep At Night? The Three Functions of Sleep

Why Do We Need To Sleep At Night? The Three Functions of Sleep

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Getting a good night’s rest has been shown to improve memory, increase attention, enhance creativity, and aid in decision-making.

-Dr. Jason Holland, Lifespark

3 min read

One might assume that a question as basic as ‘Why do we need to sleep at night?’ was long ago answered by modern science, but the reality is that we’re still learning about the functions of sleeping.  

And if you step back and really think about it, sleep is a pretty weird ritual that we perform every night.

As the comedian, George Carlin, observed, “People say, ‘I’m going to sleep now,’ as if it were nothing. But it’s really a bizarre activity. ‘For the next several hours, while the sun is gone, I’m going to become unconscious, temporarily losing command over everything I know and understand. When the sun returns, I will resume my life.’”

On the surface of it, sleep would seem to confer an evolutionary disadvantage. After all, it’s pretty hard to defend yourself against potential predators when you’re unconscious and have lost command of your body.

Yet, scientists are hard-pressed to identify an animal species that doesn’t need sleep. And extreme sleep deprivation has been shown to be fatal in animals.

So there must be some good reason(s) why we need to sleep at night. Though it’s still an unraveling mystery, recent science has provided some answers.

Here are three of the leading ideas about the functions of sleep:   

1. Sleeping to Conserve Energy.

Sleep helps animals save energy, which may be a particularly important function when food resources are limited. And indeed metabolism does slow down during sleep. Our body temperature drops, and we have less need for caloric intake.

2. Sleeping to Restore the Body.

Sleep also appears to help us rejuvenate after a long day of activity. Notably, many of the body’s restorative functions occur primarily during sleep, such as tissue repair and muscle growth.

3. Sleeping to Boost Brain Plasticity.

Sleep appears be beneficial for the brain in a variety of ways. Specifically, getting a good night’s rest has been shown to improve memory, increase attention, enhance creativity, and aid in decision-making.

This week, we examine the importance of sleep further. 

Tomorrow, we explore the role of dreams and discuss their meaning in our lives. Then on Wednesday, you can self-assess your sleep habits and get personalized feedback based on your responses.

And for those who have bad dreams, Thursday’s piece focuses on ways to minimize the negative impact of nightmares. We then end the week on Friday with a discussion on dreams about lost loved ones and ways to work productively with them.

So, come back each day this week for more on the importance of sleep. And in the comments below, tell us about the role of sleep in your life. What is your relationship with sleep? How does it affect your waking life?

 

Further Reading:

DOWNLOAD DAYZZ SLEEP APP TO GET YOUR SCIENCE-BACKED, PERSONALIZED SLEEP TRAINING PLAN

 

 

 

 


Sources:

Assefa, S. Z., Diaz-Abad, M., Wickwire, E. M., & Scharf, S. M. (2015). The functions of sleep. AIMS Neuroscience, 2, 155-171.

Cirelli, C., & Tononi, G. (2008). Is sleep essential? PLoS Biology, 6, e216.

During, E. H., & Kawai, M. (2017). The functions of sleep and the effects of sleep deprivation. In Mitchell G. Miglis (Ed), Sleep and Neurologic Disease (pp. 55-72). London, UK: Elsevier.

Franken, P., Kopp, C., Landolt, H. P., & Lüthi, A. (2009). The functions of sleep. European Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 1739-1740.

Zielinski, M. R., McKenna, J. T., & McCarley, R. W. (2016). Functions and mechanisms of sleep. AIMS Neuroscience, 3, 67-104.

 

Pay Attention to Your Dreams: 5 Reasons Why Dreams Are Meaningful

Pay Attention to Your Dreams: 5 Reasons Why Dreams Are Meaningful

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5 min read

Over the past century, evolution of thought on dreams has virtually come full circle.

       Contemporary research has largely debunked the notion that dreams can be reduced to meaningless firings of neurons.

-Dr.Jason Holland, Lifespark

In Sigmund Freud’s 1899 book, The Interpretation of Dreams, he argued that dreams are meaningful and reveal secrets about our inner, subconscious wishes.

This understanding of dreams dominated academic thought and study on the subject, until it was largely replaced in the late 1970’s by a theory called the activation-synthesis hypothesis, which contended that dreams simply represent mental imagery elicited by random neural firings in the brain.

With the advent of more sophisticated methods for studying sleep and dream states, we now have a much clearer picture of how dreams work and their possible function in human life. 

And contemporary research has largely debunked the notion that dreams can be reduced to meaningless firings of neurons. As a testament to how far we’ve come, in a recent review of research and theories on dreams, the psychologist and consciousness expert, Dr. Matthew Erdelyi, suggested that “the question in modern psychology should not be whether dreams have meaning but whether it is possible for dreams not to have meaning.”

So, if you’re looking for meaning in your own dreams, here are 5 findings that reveal the importance of dreams and their possible significance in our lives:

Read Related Article: Making Sense of Our Dreams: The Case of the Self-Replicating Snake

1. Dreams reflect recent life concerns

If you ever wake up and wonder ‘Where did that dream come from?’, consider the events from the preceding day. Dreams are likely to incorporate events from the prior day or two—a phenomenon referred to as the day-residue effect. These same events also have a tendency to reappear 5-7 days later in what is termed the dream-lag effect.

But unlike ordinary wakeful remembering, in dreams these events tend to show up as fragments, sometimes bizarre and nonsensical in nature, and are often mixed in with more distant memories. Thus, piecing together the significance of a particular dream is likely to involve consideration of the idiosyncratic meaning of dream imagery and how it reflects both immediate and long-standing concerns.

2. Emotions play an important role in dreams

The material from our day that ends up making it in dreams does not appear to be selected at random. Events rated as having a higher level of emotion associated with them, whether positive or negative, are more likely to show up in dreams. It’s as though emotions tag events that are important to us and worthy of reconsideration during sleep.

So, if you are having trouble placing a dream that you’ve had, use your emotions as a guide. The emotional vibe of the dream is likely to reflect recent feelings you’ve had about some issue in your life.

3. Dreams help consolidate memory

Have you ever crammed for a test, gone to sleep, only to wake and find that your memory for the material had strengthened during the night? A number of studies have now shown that these post-sleep memory boosts are real, indicating that one important function of sleep is to consolidate new memories into more permanent forms of memory storage.

Many have theorized that this memory consolidation process during sleep is what we experience as dreams. And some research has emerged supporting such a claim, demonstrating that recall of new information after sleep is stronger if it was incorporated into a dream. From this perspective, dreams may then be thought of as a rehashing of what’s important and needs to be remembered.

4. Dreams may help forecast future 

The American 20th century mystic, Edgar Cayce, once remarked that Dreams are today’s answers to tomorrow’s questions.” Recently, this notion of dreams forecasting possible future problems in one’s life has seen a revival of sorts.

According to the psychologist and dream expert, Dr. Sue Llewellyn, in a recent piece for Aeon, “we are better at making non-obvious…associations after REM sleep because our brains are primed during that sleep – by our dreams – to spot non-obvious, probabilistic patterns of experience and events.” From this vantage point, dreams may be thought of as messages to the self about what could be important to pay attention to in the future, based on identification of patterns in prior events. Preliminary evidence showing a link between dream content and the onset of disease provides some support for this notion. For example, women with breast cancer have described having “warning dreams” prior to their diagnosis. These dreams are described as conveying a strong feeling of threat, menace, or dread in a particularly vivid way, often involving the specific words “cancer” or “breast” or a sense of physical contact with that part of the body.  

5. Symbolic meaning in dreams is highly personal

Though dream dictionaries may promise to interpret dream imagery for you, the truth is that no one is in a better position to make sense of your dreams than you. As Dr. Llewellyn explained in a recent article, “Experiences (or things) are associated in the mind/brain when their meaning is the same or similar. For humans…meaning is often personally specific.”

The imagery of a window in a dream, for example, may then mean one thing to you (e.g., perhaps an escape to freedom), but have an entirely different meaning for me (e.g., a dangerous precipice) or someone else (e.g., a work of carpentry), depending on our unique personalities and life experiences 

So, making sense of dream content is likely to involve searching within yourself to decipher the personal meaning of imagery and symbols in dreams.

If you’d like to understand your dreams better, consider recording them using our dream diary based on the findings presented here. What patterns do you notice? How does that reflect recent and long-standing concerns in your life? Give it a try, and let us know what you think in the comments box below.

EXCLUSIVE – Daily Dream Diary: Keep a Record of Your Unconscious Thoughts

 

Further Reading:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Sources:

Burk, L. (2015). Warning dreams preceding the diagnosis of breast cancer: a survey of the most important characteristics. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 11, 193-198.

Cipolli, C., Ferrara, M., De Gennaro, L., & Plazzi, G. (2016). Beyond the neuropsychology of dreaming: Insights into the neural basis of dreaming with new techniques of sleep recording and analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 35, 8-20.

de Koninck, J., Christ, G., Hébert, G., & Rinfret, N. (1990). Language learning efficiency, dreams and REM sleep. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 15, 91-92.

Domhoff, G. W. (2003). The scientific study of dreams: Neural networks, cognitive development, and content analysis. American Psychological Association.

Erdelyi, M. H. (2014). The interpretation of dreams, and of jokes. Review of General Psychology, 18, 115-126.

Hobson, J. A., & McCarley, R. W. (1977). The brain as a dream state generator: An activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process, The American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 1335-1348.

Llewellyn, S. (2015). Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1961.

Malinowski, J. E., & Horton, C. L. (2014). Memory sources of dreams: The incorporation of autobiographical rather than episodic experiences. Journal of Sleep Research, 23, 441-447.

Nielsen, T. A., Kuiken, D., Alain, G., Stenstrom, P., & Powell, R. A. (2004). Immediate and delayed incorporations of events into dreams: further replication and implications for dream function. Journal of Sleep Research, 13, 327-336.

Payne, J. D. (2010). Memory consolidation, the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, and the nature of dreams: A new hypothesis. International Review of Neurobiology, 92, 101-134.

Schredl, M. (2006). Factors affecting the continuity between waking and dreaming: Emotional intensity and emotional tone of the waking-life event. Sleep and Hypnosis, 8, 1-5.

Van de Castle, R. L. (1994). Our Dreaming Mind. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Wamsley, E. J., & Stickgold, R. (2011). Memory, sleep, and dreaming: Experiencing consolidation. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 6, 97-108.

Wamsley, E. J., Tucker, M., Payne, J. D., Benavides, J. A., & Stickgold, R. (2010). Dreaming of a learning task is associated with enhanced sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Current Biology, 20, 850-855.

 

What is Good Sleep Hygiene? Get Personalized Recommendations on How to Stop Bad Sleeping Habits

What is Good Sleep Hygiene? Get Personalized Recommendations on How to Stop Bad Sleeping Habits

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Sleep hygiene is a term used to describe habits that promote good sleep.

Take the quiz below to learn more about your personal sleep hygiene & get personalized feedback (based on your responses) on how to improve your sleep.

*The items for this quiz were adapted from those published by Gellis & Lichstein (2009).

READ RELATED: Improving Sleep Habits: 10 Natural Ways to Get a Good Night Sleep

 

Further Reading:

DOWNLOAD DAYZZ SLEEP APP TO GET YOUR SCIENCE-BACKED, PERSONALIZED SLEEP TRAINING PLAN

 

 

 

 

 

 


Sources:

Brown, F. C., Buboltz Jr, W. C., & Soper, B. (2002). Relationship of sleep hygiene awareness, sleep hygiene practices, and sleep quality in university students. Behavioral Medicine, 28, 33-38.

Gellis, L. A., & Lichstein, K. L. (2009). Sleep hygiene practices of good and poor sleepers in the United States: An internet-based study. Behavior Therapy, 40, 1-9.

Jefferson, C. D., Drake, C. L., Scofield, H. M., Myers, E., McClure, T., Roehrs, T., & Roth, T. (2005). Sleep hygiene practices in a population-based sample of insomniacs. Sleep, 28, 611-615.

 

 

Having the Same Bad Dream Over and Over: How to Stop Recurring Nightmares

Having the Same Bad Dream Over and Over: How to Stop Recurring Nightmares

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3 min read

If you’re having the same bad dream over and over, know that there are effective ways to stop recurring nightmares.

Nightmares and bad dreams are a normal part of life. In a given year, the average person is likely to have about 10 nightmares, which involve an element of terror and prompt sudden awakening, and about 30 bad dreams, which focus on negative or stressful themes but don’t cause an immediate disturbance in sleep.

The mere presence of nightmares and bad dreams, even frequent or recurring ones, doesn’t necessarily mean that there’s a problem. Indeed, many find effective ways to cope with nightmares or come to view them in a benign way.  

READ RELATED: Stretch Your Coping Muscles! Take the Coping Flexibility Quiz and Find Out How Flexible You Are

When Nightmares Become a Problem

But nightmares can sometimes creep into our daily life, fueling feelings of anxiety or depression. They can also exacerbate other sleep disturbances, like insomnia, when sleep is avoided or delayed to prevent the occurence of more nightmares.      

If nightmares are disturbing you during the day or keeping you up at night, then it might be worth talking with a therapist about it.

Treatment for Nightmares

Both medication and talk therapy have been found to be effective treatments for chronic, disturbing nightmares. Most non-pharmacological therapies for nightmares, such as Imagery Rehearsal Therapy (IRT), draw upon one’s own natural ability to reimagine dreams and re-write their ending.

Dr. Barry Krakow, one of the developers of IRT, reasons that “imagery is often the last conscious activity just before sleep onset; ergo, imagery during the day may be a bridge to imagery at night (dreams).”

Is It Okay to Rewrite a Nightmare?

Though approaches like IRT have been shown to be successful at reducing the frequency of nightmares and the distress associated with them, the concept of ‘rewriting’ dreams is not without its critics.

In a New York Times piece on IRT, for example, Dr. Jane White-Lewis, a psychologist and instructor at the Carl Jung Institute, raised concerns that by simply putting a happy ending on a nightmare “you lose an opportunity to really get some meaning out of it.”

READ RELATED: Pay Attention to Your Dreams: 5 Reasons Why Dreams Are Meaningful

Dr. Krakow acknowledges encountering similar concerns in his practice. And to these reluctant clients, he poses the question:‘‘Do these nightmares and disturbing dreams still provide any benefits, once they have lasted for so long?’’

Krakow argues that persistent and distressful nightmares can take on a life of their own and become habit. And just like any habit we can unlearn them using simple behavioral strategies.

Give Imagery Rehearsal a Try

If you’re bothered by recurring nightmares or bad dreams and would like to learn more about imagery-based approaches to curbing nightmares, sign up for a 100% free Lifespark Exclusive membership and get access to our exercise that’s grounded in the basic principles of IRT.    

TRY EXCLUSIVE EXERCISE: Using Your Imagination to Change Nightmare Images: The Basics of Imagery Rehearsal Therapy

And in the comments below, tell us about the nightmares that have kept you up at night and what you have done to cope with them.

 

Further Reading:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Sources:

Aurora, R. N., Zak, R. S., Auerbach, S. H., Casey, K. R., Chowdhuri, S., Karippot, A., … & Lamm, C. I. (2010). Best practice guide for the treatment of nightmare disorder in adults. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 6, 389-401.

Krakow, B., & Zadra, A. (2010). Imagery rehearsal therapy: Principles and practice. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 5, 289-298.

Levin, R., & Fireman, G. (2002). Nightmare prevalence, nightmare distress, and self-reported psychological disturbance. Sleep, 25, 205-212.

Zadra, A., & Donderi, D. C. (2000). Nightmares and bad dreams: Their prevalence and relationship to well-being. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 273-281.

 

Dreaming of a Deceased Loved One: How to Get Better Quality Sleep After a Loss

Dreaming of a Deceased Loved One: How to Get Better Quality Sleep After a Loss

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    Unresolved conflicts or missed opportunities with the deceased may surface during sleep as our mind attempts to understand issues that seem to defy rationality and reason.

-Dr. Jason Holland, Lifespark

3 min read

Dreaming of a deceased loved one is a relatively common experience that may or may not affect the quality of your sleep after a loss.

Some welcome them as an opportunity to reconnect with the person they lost. Particularly for those inclined to interpret such experiences in spiritual terms, these dreams are seen as an opportunity to communicate with the deceased, who might share words of encouragement or advice. Contact of this kind is typically experienced as comforting or benign.

Of course, getting a visit from the dead in the middle of the night isn’t always experienced as comforting. So, if you’re having troubling dreams about someone that you lost, here are 3 ideas for working with them in a productive way.

Unfinished Business with the Deceased in Dreams

Unresolved conflicts or missed opportunities with the deceased may surface during sleep as our mind attempts to understand issues that seem to defy rationality and reason.

For example, in a series of interviews with bereaved caregivers conducted by sleep expert, Dr. Patricia Carter, one woman with a nursing background discussed how her guilt for not doing enough for her loved one manifested itself in her dreams: “Being the nurse in the family, I had all the pressure about making the right decisions; I had all these dreams about making the wrong decisions.”

If you think you might be holding onto some unfinished business related to someone that you’ve lost, take our unfinished business quiz for a self-assessment.

Or sign up for a free Lifespark Exclusive membership and try our letter-writing exercise, designed to help you work through unresolved issues with someone who is no longer physically present in your life.    

TRY EXCLUSIVE EXERCISE: Working through Unfinished Business: Writing a Letter to Someone From Your Past

Nightmares about a Deceased Loved One

Recurring dreams about the deceased can take on a life of their own and disrupt sleep by causing sudden awakening and/or avoidance of sleep to prevent further nightmares. It can be hard to know how to break out of this vicious cycle, as attempts to avoid thinking about the loss only seem to make matters worse.

As another bereaved caregiver in Carter’s study described it, “I’m just so afraid to go to sleep. I have bad dreams, and they are so horrible. Everybody wants to have this happy dream about the person they loved; it hasn’t happened.”

If you’re having repeated nightmares about someone you lost, it could be helpful to revisit the dream and work with it using an exercise grounded in the basic principles of Imagery Rehearsal Therapy—an approach shown to be helpful for reducing the frequency of nightmares and the distress associated with them.

READ RELATED: Having the Same Bad Dream Over and Over: How to Stop Recurring Nightmares

Bad Sleeping Habits After a Loss

In addition to providing support and companionship, relationships also serve to regulate our daily routines and habits. Particularly when we live with someone, so much of our days and nights are coordinated with that person, from mealtimes to bedtimes.

Naturally then, people who have lost a spouse or partner (especially when depressed) are prone to experience disruptions in their daily routines, which can negatively impact sleep and daytime functioning.

To develop better sleep habits and get a good night’s rest again, take our sleep hygiene quiz and get personalized recommendations on how to naturally improve your sleep.

TRY RELATED QUIZ: What is Good Sleep Hygiene? Get Personalized Recommendations on How to Stop Bad Sleeping Habits

And if you try any of these strategies, let us know how it goes in the comments below.

 

Further Reading

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Sources:

Brown, L. F., Reynolds, C. F., Monk, T. H., Prigerson, H. G., Dew, M. A., Houck, P. R., … & Kupfer, D. J. (1996). Social rhythm stability following late-life spousal bereavement: associations with depression and sleep impairment. Psychiatry Research, 62, 161-169.

Buckley, T., Sunari, D., Marshall, A., Bartrop, R., McKinley, S., & Tofler, G. (2012). Physiological correlates of bereavement and the impact of bereavement interventions. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 14, 129-139.

Carter, P. A. (2005). Bereaved caregivers’ descriptions of sleep: Impact on daily life and the bereavement process. Oncology Nursing Forum, 32, E70-E75.

Field, N. P., Packman, W., Ronen, R., Pries, A., Davies, B., & Kramer, R. (2013). Type of continuing bonds expression and its comforting versus distressing nature: Implications for adjustment among bereaved mothers. Death Studies, 37, 889-912.

Hall, M., Buysse, D. J., Dew, M. A., Prigerson, H. G., Kupfer, D. J., & Reynolds III, C. F. (1997). Intrusive thoughts and avoidance behaviors are associated with sleep disturbances in bereavement‐related depression. Depression and Anxiety, 6, 106-112.

Hardison, H. G., Neimeyer, R. A., & Lichstein, K. L. (2005). Insomnia and complicated grief symptoms in bereaved college students. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 3, 99-111.

Klugman, C. M. (2006). Dead men talking: Evidence of post death contact and continuing bonds. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 53, 249-262.

Monk, T. H., Begley, A. E., Billy, B. D., Fletcher, M. E., Germain, A., Mazumdar, S., … & Zarotney, J. R. (2008). Sleep and circadian rhythms in spousally bereaved seniors. Chronobiology International, 25, 83-98.

Stahl, S. T., & Schulz, R. (2014). Changes in routine health behaviors following late-life bereavement: A systematic review. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 736-755.

 

EXCLUSIVE – Using Your Imagination to Change Nightmare Images: The Basics of Imagery Rehearsal Therapy

EXCLUSIVE – Using Your Imagination to Change Nightmare Images: The Basics of Imagery Rehearsal Therapy

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This exercise is grounded in the basic principles of Imagery Rehearsal Therapy and involves using your imagination to change nightmare images.

If you are distressed by a recurring nightmare or bad dream, here are some steps you can take to work on these dreams and put them in new perspective.  

1. First, know that you have the power to activate the ‘imagery system’ of your mind.

With repeated practice, you can learn to take your mind anywhere you want, whenever you want. As a thought experiment, practice this skill for a moment. Close your eyes and conjure up an image of pleasant scene of your choosing.

If you find this task difficult, get some practice using positive imagery before undertaking the next steps of this exercise.   

2. Now, select a focal nightmare or bad dream that you’ve had recently.

If the imagery of the dream is of a traumatic nature and focusing on it might cause you to be flooded or overwhelmed with emotion, then we recommend either:

  • Doing this exercise with the help of a trained therapist. You can sign up for online therapy with our partner, BetterHelp.
  • Or selecting a less intense dream that feels more tolerable for you right now. Much can be learned from just practicing these techniques. Plus, the progress you make on one nightmare is likely to lessen distress associated with other nightmares as well.

In either case, there are a variety of mindfulness and self-care strategies that can be used to cope with extreme emotions, thoughts, and images. And practicing these skills can help you to better tolerate difficult imagery from your nightmares.     

3. Try to recall as many details about this nightmare or bad dream as possible.

It’s okay if you don’t remember whe whole dream. In fact, you can even work with brief fragments if that’s all you remember.

You may find it helpful to write down the dominant themes and images of the dream when awakened by it or shortly after. Also jot down on a scale from 1 to 10 (with 10 being the worst) how distressing this dream is to you now. But avoid typing these notes into your phone or computer at night, as the light emitted from their screens can exacerbate sleep problems.

4. When you’re ready, revisit your focal nightmare or bad dream and alter it in some way in your mind’s eye.

You might recruit superheroes to come in and save the day, for example. You could perhaps float away to safety. Or maybe the villains in your dream shrink in size or morph into Teletubbies. What’s most important is that you develop an altered version of the dream that seems to work for you. Write down the gist of this new version.

5. Practice imagining this new version of the dream.

At a time of your choosing, rehearse this new dream for a few minutes each day. Try to really picture it in your mind. Replay it several times, until you feel like you’re pretty familiar with it.

6. After about 3 to 7 days of rehearsing this new version of the dream, track your progress and take stock of where you’re at.

Using the same scale as before (from 1 to 10, with 10 being the worst), consider how distressing your focal nightmare or bad dream is for you now. How does this compare to your original rating?

If you’re still bothered by a nightmare after going through these steps, you might consider focusing on a less intense dream or consulting with a professional therapist.

READ RELATED: Opening Up to Therapy The Do-It-Yourselfers Guide to Making Positive Life Changes: Try These Therapy Alternatives

Stay focused on one dream at a time, and if you’re having multiple nightmares, try not to focus on more than two in a given week.

Also, know that it’s not necessary to do this exercise for each and every bad dream you may have. By just learning this skill and practicing it with a few nightmares, you’re likely to notice changes in the way you feel about many of your dreams.     

We hope you get something out of this exercise, and if you give it a try, please let us know how it goes in the comments below.

RETURN TO ARTICLE: Having the Same Bad Dream Over and Over: How to Stop Recurring Nightmares

Further Reading:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Sources:

Aurora, R. N., Zak, R. S., Auerbach, S. H., Casey, K. R., Chowdhuri, S., Karippot, A., … & Lamm, C. I. (2010). Best practice guide for the treatment of nightmare disorder in adults. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 6, 389-401.

Krakow B, & Neidhardt E. J. (1992). Conquering Bad Dreams and Nightmares: A Guide to Understanding, Interpretation, and Cure. New York: Berkley Books.

Krakow, B., & Zadra, A. (2010). Imagery rehearsal therapy: Principles and practice. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 5, 289-298.

Neidhardt, E. J., Krakow, B., Kellner, R., & Pathak, D. (1992). The beneficial effects of one treatment session and recording of nightmares on chronic nightmare sufferers. Sleep, 15, 470-473.

 

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